568. It would seem that the Septuagint (LXX) translation is not only far more ancient than the Masoretic Text . The Septuagint version of some books, such as Daniel and Esther, are longer than those in the Masoretic Text. .Yet, modern Christian translations of the Old Testament rely on the Masoretic Text, not the Septuagint. Designed by John A. Peck, The Online Orthodox Christian Homiletics Resource. The Septuagint (LXX) reflects a Hebrew structure that predates the Masoretic text by roughly a thousand years. It is estimated that the first five books of the Septuagint, … I have to generalize, mostly because I haven't studied the subject in quite a while, and I'm not familiar with a couple of the texts mentioned. It can provide invaluable help to Orthodox Christians in understanding their Faith more deeply, and in defending and giving an account of it when confronted with heterodox — especially Protestant — claims. Why Orthodox Christians Prefer the Septuagint: Part 2. But if this guilt is in your people Israel, give Thummim." Fr. The Septuagint and Peshitta texts were preserved within the Church, and so the Church believes that the text of the Old Testament was been authoritatively preserved in these textual traditions. the original Hebrew texts from which the Septuagint was translated are no longer extant. However, since the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, we now know that the Septuagint is based on a different, and older Hebrew text than the … The earliest Septuagint manuscripts are from the 2nd century BC. And so we have always held that the Septuagint is the authoritative version of the Old Testament. Enjoy! Thus the manuscripts from Qumran have demonstrated that a major reason for the differences between the Septuagint and the Masoretic text is that the Septuagint is based on a different Hebrew textual tradition than the Masoretic text, but one that is of equal antiquity." The Masoretic ends instead with, "release to the prisoners." If this guilt is in me or in Jonathan my son, O LORD, God of Israel, give Urim. Another example is the text quoted in Hebrews 1:6 (And let all the angels of God worship him) which is nowhere to be found in the Masoretic text, but is found in both the Septuagint and the Dead Sea Scrolls Hebrew text in Deuteronomy 32:43. Seraphim Slobodskoy, in his classic catechetical text, wrote: "...it is clear why the Church prefers the Septuagint and Peshitta translations for the authoritative text of the Old Testament, and principally the first, for the Septuagint text was produced under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit by the concerted effort of the Old Testament Church" (The Law of God: For Study at Home and School (Jordanville, NY: Holy Trinity Monastery, 1994) p. 440). What are some additions to some books that are in both? And Jonathan and Saul were taken, but the people escaped. The End Time WAR on our Gospel and the clear message to this Generation . Fr. It is extremely helpful to understand the range of meaning of the original Hebrew text (when we clearly have it). The Masorete compilers gave him 70 descendents in their version. And in the above quote, I think there may be a translation problem, though I don't have the Russian text, and my Russian would probably be too limited to tell for sure by myself -- but when it says "some of the citations taken from the Old Testament and found in the New mainly use the Septuagint text," it is awkwardly worded enough for me to guess that Metropolitan Hilarion meant to say that most (not just "some") of the quotes of the Old Testament in the New Testament are based on the Septuagint... because as a matter of fact, that is true. John Whiteford talks about the "Bible according to the Seventy". Furthermore, it is clear that the text that Christ and the Apostles used most closely matches the Septuagint rather than the Masoretic text. Original Hebrew," by Fr. The Septuagint version of Jeremiah is about 1/8 (about 2700 words) shorter than the Masoretic. The Masoretic text is a text that has not been preserved by the Church, and so while it is worthy of study and comparison, it is not equally trustworthy. That is why twice in the Old Testament they were instructed not to add to or take away from the Word of God. The Septuagint and Peshitta texts were preserved within the Church, and so the Church believes that the text of the Old Testament was been authoritatively preserved in these textual traditions. While the Masoretic Text is still widely embraced today, it’s had its share of controversy, too. 1: Now the serpent was more subtil than any … It is kind of like a “snapshot” of what the Hebrew text looked like over a thousand years before the Jews created the Masoretic Text. Guns, Lies and Forgeries: A Bible Story By Robert E. Reis Once upon a time there was a tribe living in the Middle East that had a collection of sacred texts written in Hebrew, Chaldean and Aramaic. But a later Hebrew text called the Masoretic text has a … This would make Jesus’ birth too early for him to be the Messiah, according to a certain type of chiliasm.5But the quote canno… . And so we have always held that the Septuagint is the authoritative version of the Old Testament. A Pagan Records the Slaughter of the Innocents by Herod, The Apostle John and the First Letter of Clement to the Corinthians, Nothing Strikes Fear in the Person Whose Hope is in God, Marriage Perfection to Rival the Holiest of Monks, The Compilers of the Philokalia Answer the Opponents of Frequent Communion, The “Smoking Gun” of Non-Chalcedonian Christianity, Salvation of Christians Outside the Orthodox Church, Augustine: Infant Baptism Is The Apostolic And Universal Practice Of The Church, Calvin Knew Infant Baptism Was Apostolic in Origin. Since the Septuagint is a translation, scholars speculate if it accurately reflects the Hebrew scriptures of the 2nd century BC. Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Moloch, and the star of your god Raephan, the images of them which ye made for yourselves (Sir Lancelot Brenton translation of the Septuagint). The Septuagint is one of the most important assets that textual criticism has today. In Romans 3:1 & 2, God’s word tells us that the Jews were committed to the oracles of God. Here you can leave your comment on the present article, not exceeding 4000 characters. ," the Patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, along with the other assembled bishops stated: "Our Church holds the infallible and genuine deposit of the Holy Scriptures: of the Old Testament a true and perfect version, of the New the divine original itself." The Masoretic text simply makes no sense, and obviously at some point a scribe skipped an entire line or two of the text. Asceties of Piety. There’s a 1500 year difference between the two timelines. For example, in Acts 7:43, the Protomartyr Stephen quotes from the book of Amos as follows: Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Moloch, and the star of your god Remphan, figures which ye made to worship them (Acts 7:43 KJV). Early Age of Kings (Solomon to the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem and the Babylonian captivity). According to the relevant research the excessive text of the MT version is due to additions of several stereotypical and conventional expressions, finally damaging the original form of the prophecies that is full of meaning and superbly measured. According to Christian tradition, the non-Christian Jews began making changes in the Old Testament text to undercut the Christian use of Old Testament prophecies concerning the coming of Christ. The Masoretic text is a text that has not been preserved by the Church, and so while it is worthy of study and comparison, it is not equally trustworthy. Joseph Gleason, "The Septuagint," by Fr. jodav. Over time (before the first century), it came to include all of the books of the Old Testament, including the deuterocanonicals. Septuagint - Is it a Reliable Translation? Is There Such A Thing As Too Much Learning? Often this argument comes up from those holding to the Septuagint. The Septuagint is based upon Hebrew texts at least twelve centuries older than the texts upon which the Masoretic version is based. b. (3) Instead of the Masoretic Text, the original Hebrew copies of … Does the Orthodox Church teach that the Septuagint is more reliable than the Hebrew text of the Old Testament? The Jews were given charge of keeping and copying God’s word. if so wouldnt that give credibility to the septuagint or its source given DDS are old (older than 2nd century)? That the Septuagint is the most authoritative text in the Orthodox Church is something that is confirmed in just about any Orthodox catechetical text you could consult. The Septuagint predates the first appearance of the Masoretic text by almost ten centuries. Septuagint vs Masoretic Texts (Torah, Tanakh, doctrine, women) User Name: Remember Me: Password Please register to participate in our discussions with 2 million other members - it's free and quick! Another example of a clearly corrupt reading in the Masoretic text is 1 Sameule 14:41, which reads as follows: Therefore Saul said unto the LORD God of Israel, "Give Thummim". A close examination of the Septuagint and the Masoretic Text (the early Hebrew text of the Old Testament) show slight variations. Septuagint vs. Masoretic: Which Is More Authentic? Yet, modern Christian translations of the Old Testament rely on the Masoretic Text, not the Septuagint. The Septuagint is based upon Hebrew texts at least twelve centuries older than the texts upon which the Masoretic version is based. Septuagint: Masoretic: 1: Now the serpent was the most crafty of all the brutes on the earth, which the Lord God made, and the serpent said to the woman, Wherefore has God said, Eat not of every tree of the garden? And Saul and Jonathan were taken: but the people escaped. We have the promise that the Holy Spirit will guide us into all Truth (John 16:13), and so can indeed affirm that "Our Church holds the infallible and genuine deposit of the Holy Scriptures" ("Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs" of 1848). The Septuagint predates the first appearance of the Masoretic text by almost ten centuries. by Gabe Martini, "Masoretic Text vs. These are principle examples of why the Septuagint Old Testament is the ‘official’ Old Testament of the Orthodox Church (that and the fact that the Masoretic text didn’t even exist until 1,000 a.d.). We have the promise that the Holy Spirit will guide us into all Truth (John 16:13), and so can indeed affirm that Textual preservation is a critical issue for the Bible believer. In any case, the differences, due to copying errors and slips of the … Scholars have been discussing this issue for millennia, but one aspect of this debate has garnered considerable attention in our circles recently: the Masoretic (MT) vs. Septuagint (LXX) debate. Due to the fact that there were variances in the Hebrew texts, the textual tradition that the Septuagint translation presents often differs widely from the Masoretic Hebrew text of today. And what it corrects in the Masoretic Text demonstrates that the MT was altered by anti-Christian rabbis in the first and second centuries A.D. If the Masoretic version is the one and only true Old Testament, then the Dead Sea Scrolls are extremely good news for Bible believers, Jewish or Christian. Some forums can only be seen by registered members. So effective were they that the Septuagint began to be viewed by some as a “Christian” translation. dead sea scrolls and septuagint vs masoretic text . The early Christians were quick to make effective use of the Septuagint to prove that Jesus was the Christ, the promised Messiah. (Read Part 1 First!) One often encounters the use of the “prophetic perfect”, where a prophecy of something that has not yet come to pass is in the perfect tense, and so is often translated with the English past tense, e.g. Andrew Phillips. Particularly when the Septuagint and the Hebrew text are in agreement, we will better understand the Septuagint as a translation if we compare it with the Hebrew text that it is clearly a translation of. The Hebrew Text that has served as the basis for most translations of the Old Testament into English is based almost entirely on the Leningrad Codex, which dates from 1008 A.D. It is a more faithful representation of the original Hebrew Scriptures. The oldest extant Masoretic Text is from the late 9 th century. The Masoretic Text is the Hebrew text of the Old Testament used for our modern translations. It should be pointed out that the Hebrew text should not be ignored entirely. Taking into account the three factors enumerated above, St. Philaret of Moscow considers it possible to maintain that "in the Orthodox teaching of Holy Scripture it is necessary to attribute a dogmatic merit to the Translation of the Seventy, in some cases placing it on equal level with the original and even elevating it above the Hebrew text, as is generally accepted in the most recent editions (Orthodox Christianity, Volume II: Doctrine and Teaching of the Orthodox Church, (New York: St. Vladimir Seminary Press, 2012) p. 34). Septuagint vs. (proto-) Masoretic T ext during the antiquity I n order to understand contemporary positions in Orthodoxy about the Septuagint and the Hebrew text, it … Also, there are several sections of the Hebrew text that are simply unreadable without keeping one eye on the Hebrew text and one eye on the Septuagint. The Septuagint (for example in the Alexandrinus or Vaticanus texts) is older than the Masoretic. Test case for accuracy of LXX vs. Masoretic: Shem as Melchizedek. The Masoretic text and the Septuagint both link all the key male players, but the Septuagint gives longer time frames for many of them. All comments will be read by the editors of, , which was a reply to the epistle of Pope Pius IX, ". ...the basis of the Old Testament text in the Orthodox tradition is the Septuagint, a Greek translation by the "seventy interpreters" made in the third to second centuries BCE for the Alexandrian Hebrews and the Jewish diaspora. For example, it is helpful to know that Hebrew does not have a past or future tense, but only a perfect and imperfect tense… and so just because an English translation is clearly in either the past, present, or future tense, it does not necessarily mean that this is what is implied by the Hebrew original. There was a time when many Protestant scholars assumed that the Septuagint was an often loose translation of the Hebrew text, and that when it differed from the Masoretic Text, it was due to changes made by the translators. The canonical text of the Hebrew Bible is called the Masoretic Text, a text preserved by Jewish rabbis from early the 7th and 10th centuries CE.There are, however, two other major texts, the Septuagint and the Samaritan Pentateuch.The Septuagint is a Koine Greek translation of the original biblical Hebrew holy books. The Septuagint and Peshitta texts were preserved within the Church, and so the Church believes that the text of the Old Testament was been authoritatively preserved in these textual traditions. Furthermore, it is clear that the text that Christ and the Apostles used most closely matches the Septuagint rather than the Masoretic text. If the last character of the Hebrew word was a waw (v), as the Greek seems to indicate, then the translation “pierced” is tenable. Its message is especially pertinent for our times, when there is widespread confusion and ignorance about the true nature of Christ’s Church and about the right approach to Holy Scripture. Septuagint: Part 2. This led to its losing popularity among the Jews and resulted in several new translations being produced in Greek. The authority of the Septuagint is based on three factors. Second, some of the citations taken from the Old Testament and found in the New mainly use the Septuagint text. Church Holy Days. Furthermore, it is clear that the text that Christ and the Apostles used most closely matches the Septuagint rather than the Masoretic text. In Acts 7:14, Luke quotes the Jewish Septuagint saying Jacob had 75 descendents. The Septuagint Book of Jeremiah is shorter than the Masoretic Text. If you dig in and study, you’ll find that the Septuagint, the Aramaic Peshitta Tanakh, Samaritan Pentateuch, and Dead Sea Scrolls all indicate a Hebrew that differs from the Masoretic text that was finalized between AD 600–950. We have written in a previous article (“The Neutralization of the Netherworld”) that the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament represents an ancient and authentic Hebrew tradition. In the "Encyrlical of the Eastern Patriarchs" of 1848, which was a reply to the epistle of Pope Pius IX, "To The Easterns," the Patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, along with the other assembled bishops stated: "Our Church holds the infallible and genuine deposit of the Holy Scriptures: of the Old Testament a true and perfect version, of the New the divine original itself." If we are to say that the Bible has been inspired, we need to know what it contains. The Masoretic Text (MT) is the main Hebrew edition of the Old Testament. 568. It is impossible for Shem to be Melchizedek using the Septuagint chronology because Shem dies 600 years before Abraham is born. . It is an example of the Masoretic recension, which is usually dated to have been shaped between the 6th and 10th centuries A.D. Now we have gaps in the record. Where is the problem? New Hieromartyr Hilarion (Troitsky), Archbishop of Verey. The Septuagint text is the text that the Church has preserved. This is obvious because of the reference to the Urim and Thummim, which were two objects used by the priest of the Old Testament for discerning the will of God on matters such as that described in 1 Samuel 14. I have weighed the value of both the Septuagint (LXX) and the Masoretic Text (MT) and have found not only the scholarly work and veracity of the MT to stand the test but also the archaeological evidence to verify the dating in the MT. a. Jews today believe that Shem is Melchizedek because the Masoretic chronology has Shem living down past the birth of Jacob. The earliest Masoretic manuscripts are from the 9th or 10th centuries AD. Then as Jesus quotes it and as the Jewish Septuagint reads, the verse ends with, "let the oppressed go free." For example, if you look at the footnotes for the book of Habbakuk in the NRSV there are 5 places in which it states that the Hebrew text is uncertain, and 3 times in which they state that they are simply translating from the Septuagint, Peshitta, and/or the Vulgate, because the Hebrew text is so unclear. Is the Septuagint a Divinely Inspired Translation. In comparison to the textual evidence that we have for the New Testament Greek text, this is a very late manuscript. Registered User. But when you look this quote up in Amos 5:26 in most translations, you will find that the quotation doesn’t match: You also carried Sikkuth your king and Chiun, your idols, the star of your gods, which you made for yourselves (NKJV). Discrepancies between the Masoretic Text and the Septuagint have led some scholars (and entire traditions) to question the Masoretic Text’s authenticity and the degree to which it really reflects the Jewish canon.While we do have earlier copies of the Septuagint (predating the Masoretic Text by several centuries), and earlier manuscripts are usually closer to the original, the Masoretic Text wa… Since the Masoretic differs significantly from the Septuagint, and since Jesus and the apostles treated the Septuagint as inspired, I believe the Masoretic differences are indeed errors. What books does the Septuagint have that the Masoretic Text does not? The Hebrew Masoretic Text and the Greek Septuagint. Compare the above with the Latin Vulgate: But you carried a tabernacle for your Moloch, and the image of your idols, the star of your god, which you made to yourselves (Douay-Rheims translation of the Vulgate). © 1999-2018 OrthoChristian.comWhen reposting our material a link to OrthoChristian.com is required. The oldest more or less complete Septuagint manuscripts are Codex Vaticanus (4th century AD) and Codex Alexandrinus (5th century AD). the Septuagint is far more accurate as well. Several modern translations correct this clearly erroneous text based on the Septuagint and Vulgate to read: Therefore Saul said, "O LORD God of Israel, why have you not answered your servant this day? There was a time when many Protestant scholars assumed that the Septuagint was an often loose translation of the Hebrew text, and that when it differed from the Masoretic Text, it was due to changes made by the translators. If so, why? (The Transmission-History of the Septuagint. This is where the name "Septuagint" came from and why the Roman numeral for 70 (LXX) is used as an abbreviation for the translation. In Is the Septuagint a superior text for the Genesis genealogies?, we pointed out that Smith used a forged quote from Ephraem the Syrian (AD 306–373), which claims the Jews altered the biblical text by reducing the timespan covered by the chronogenealogies in Genesis 5 and 11. …with His stripes, we were healed (Isaiah 53:5), when from the perspective of the prophet, he was speaking of something in the future. First of all, though the Greek text is not the original language of the Old Testament books, the Septuagint does reflect the state of the original text as it would have been found in the third to second centuries BCE, while the current Hebrew text of the Bible, which is called the "Masoretic," was edited up until the eighth century CE. The Septuagint text is the text that the Church has preserved. More specifically, the current discussion is over the respective chron… "Is the Septuagint a Divinely Inspired Translation?" The following article was written in 1914, when St. Hilarion was an archimandrite and a professor of the Imperial Moscow Spiritual Academy. In any case, the Hebrew Text that we now have was preserved outside the Church. However, since the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, we now know that the Septuagint is based on a different, and older Hebrew text than the Masoretic text. Third, the Septuagint was used by both the Greek Fathers of the Church, and Orthodox liturgical services (in other words, this text became part of the Orthodox church Tradition). The Septuagint versus the Masoretic The English version of the Septuagint text, Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton compared to the English version of the Masoretic text in the King James translation jodav. 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Online Orthodox Christian Homiletics Resource OrthoChristian.com is required in the Alexandrinus or Vaticanus texts ) is the authoritative of!
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