The economic downturn caused by the conflict and sanctions also led to lower wages for shabiha members. In Algeria, discontent had been building for years over a number of issues. Israel tolerated and supported Islamist movements in Gaza as it perceived them preferable to the secular and then more powerful al-Fatah. That letter outlined concerns about the several provisions in the then-unfinished agreement and called for a number of improvements to strengthen the prospective agreement and win support. In the countries with the lowest Internet penetration and the limited role of social networks, such as Yemen and Libya, the role of mainstream electronic media devices such as cell phones, emails, and video clips was very important to cast light on the situation in the country and spread the word about the protests in the outside world. According to the Watson Institute for International Studies Costs of War Project, 21,000 civilians have been killed as a result of the war. By September 2011, Syrian rebels were engaged in an active insurgency campaign in many parts of Syria. Throughout the entire Iraq war, there have been human rights abuses on all sides of the conflict. Civil uprisings had erupted in Bahrain and Syria. Middle East, cont’d: Nationalisms 2. Islamists accused the Saudi regime of being a puppet of the west. The rationale and misrepresentation of pre-war intelligence faced heavy criticism within the U.S. and internationally. Celebrations in Tahrir Square after Omar Suleiman’s statement concerning Hosni Mubarak’s resignation, photo by Jonathan Rashad. Formal negotiations toward the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action on Iran’s nuclear program began with the adoption of the Joint Plan of Action, an interim agreement signed between Iran and the P5+1 countries in November 2013. Israel, Lebanon, Turkey, and Kuwait were determined to be “partly free” while all the other countries in the region received the “not free” status. The country also faced particularly high youth unemployment rates. The council, based in Turkey, attempted to organize the opposition. The conflict, pitting indigenous impoverished Muslims against an anti-religious superpower, galvanized thousands of Muslims around the world to send aid and sometimes to go themselves to fight for their faith. An open letter endorsing the agreement was also signed by 36 retired military generals and admirals. Other human rights problems include institutional discrimination against non-Orthodox Jews and intermarried families and labor rights abuses against foreign workers. One of the main problems of Iran’s system is the consolidation of too much power in the hands of the Supreme Leader who is elected by Assembly of Experts for life (unless the Assembly of Experts decides to remove him which has never happened). In the last several states, Tunisia, the second most democratic states of the region, has made significant progress by enacting sweeping legislation to protect the rights of many previously vulnerable groups, including women, children, and the disabled. In 1981, Iranian officials concluded that the country’s nuclear development should continue. Republican leaders vowed to attempt to kill the agreement as soon as it was released, even before classified sections were The Taliban considered politics to be against sharia and thus did not hold elections. Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts. <>>> ... and Arafat becomes a major player on the Middle East scene. In December 2014, NATO formally ended combat operations in Afghanistan and transferred full security responsibility to the Afghan government. The events of post U.S. withdrawal have showed patterns raising concerns that the surging violence might slide into another civil war. According to Amnesty International, the Taliban commit war crimes by targeting civilians, including killing teachers, abducting aid workers, and burning school buildings. For example, in the past, Saddam Hussein of Iraq or Muammar Gaddafi of Libya were among the most influential figures of the region. Several scholars stated that the abuses constituted state-sanctioned crimes. Countries with greater access to social media, such as Tunisia and Egypt, proved more effective in mobilizing large groups of people and appear to have been more successful overall than those with greater state control over media. The economic impact of a partial lifting of sanctions extends beyond the energy sector. Although there was a formal end to combat operations, as of 2017 American forces continue to conduct airstrikes and special operations raids, while Afghan forces are losing ground to Taliban forces in some regions. As of March 2015, the war has affected 290 heritage sites, severely damaged 104, and completely destroyed 24. Need an outstanding visual that will anchor your students learning of historical events? The IAEA launched an investigation in 2003 after an Iranian dissident group revealed undeclared nuclear activities carried out by Iran. Countries like Saudi Arabia, on the other hand, exhibited a strong mobilization of military force against protesters, effectively ending the revolts in their territories. An hour later he doused himself with gasoline and set himself afire. These include repression of the Muslim Brotherhood (transnational organization that claims to be pro-democratic although many Middle Eastern commentators questions its commitment to democracy); rise of Islamist state-building, most prominently in Syria, Iraq, Libya and Yemen, as Islamists have found it easier than competing non-Islamists to fill the void of state failure by securing external funding, weaponry, and fighters; increasing sectarianism (primarily Sunni-Shia); increased caution and political learning in countries such as Algeria and Jordan where Islamists have chosen not to lead a major challenge against their governments; and in countries where Islamists did chose to lead a major challenge and did not succeed in transforming society (particularly Egypt), a disinterest in finding the answer as to what went wrong in favor of antagonism, anger, and a thirst for revenge. Sargon of Akkad, also known as Sargon the Great "the Great King" was a Semitic Akkadian emperor famous for his conquest of the Sumerian city-states in the 23rd and 22nd centuries Initially, the protesters demanded mostly democratic reforms, release of political prisoners, an increase in freedoms, abolition of the emergency law, and an end to corruption. In Egypt, the labor movement had been strong for years and provided an important venue for organizing protests and collective action. Timeline of the Middle East in the 20th Century. Most Syrian refugees have sought safety in Lebanon, Jordan, Turkey, and Iraq. The violence has caused millions to flee their homes. Iran, with cooperation from the “Working Group” (the P5+1 and possibly other countries), will modernize and rebuild the Arak heavy water research reactor based on an agreed design to support its peaceful nuclear research and production needs and purposes, but in such a way as to minimize the production of plutonium and prevent production of weapons-grade plutonium. An intense public debate in the United States took place during the congressional review period, with various groups lobbying both opposition and support for the agreement. Such developments as the Iranian Revolution and the Soviet -Afghan War convinced many that the Westernization of the Muslim world was avoidable and fueled radical Islamism. However, Iran and the U.S. have been both accused of violating the agreement, and its future under Trump administration is uncertain. The participation of the United States and Western European governments in Iran’s nuclear program continued until the 1979 Iranian Revolution that toppled the Shah of Iran. All the remaining Middle Eastern states are currently determined to be “not free” (including Western Sahara, which is controlled by Morocco). During the protests, people created pages on Facebook to raise awareness about alleged crimes against humanity, such as police brutality in the Egyptian Revolution. These attacks resonated with conservative Muslims and the problem did not go away with Saddam’s defeat, since American troops remained stationed in the kingdom. None of the Middle Eastern countries received the “free” status from the Freedom House in their 2016 Freedom of the Press report, which measures specifically the level of freedom and editorial independence enjoyed by the press. NATO became involved in ISAF in 2003 and later that year assumed leadership of its troops from 43 countries. The Iraqi Red Crescent organization estimated the total internal displacement was around 2.3 million in 2008, and as many as 2 million Iraqis left the country. Timeline of Middle East, Politics linked to the news articles, countries timelines and displayed as icons. According to various human rights organizations and the United Nations, human rights violations have been committed by both the government and the rebels, with the “vast majority of the abuses having been committed by the Syrian government.” The war has also led to the massive destruction of Syrian heritage sites. On the other hand, post-colonial theories propose a number  of explanations for the relative absence of liberal democracy in the Middle East, including the long history of imperial rule by the Ottoman Empire, Britain, and France and the contemporary political and military intervention by the United States, all of which have been blamed for preferring authoritarian regimes because they simplify the business environment while enriching the governing elite and the companies of the imperial countries. By October, the FSA started to receive active support from the Turkish government, which allowed the rebel army to operate its command and headquarters from the country’s southern Hatay Province close to the Syrian border and its field command from inside Syria. Facebook, Twitter, and other major social media played a key role in the movement of Egyptian and Tunisian activists in particular. %PDF-1.5 CC licensed content, Specific attribution, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absolute_monarchy, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_of_the_Press_(report), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Morocco, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy_in_the_Middle_East, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_in_the_World, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_rights_in_Israel, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_rights_in_the_Middle_East, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_rights_in_Tunisia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women_in_Arab_societies, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Iraq, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Iraqi_voters_inked_fingers.jpg, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_and_modernity, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salafi_movement, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muslim_Brotherhood, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_fundamentalism, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Mosque_seizure, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_revival, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_State_of_Iraq_and_the_Levant, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Mosque_seizure#/media/File:Saudi_soldiers,_Mecca,_1979.JPG, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_in_Afghanistan_(2015%E2%80%93present), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ba'athist_Iraq, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu_Ghraib_torture_and_prisoner_abuse, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casualties_of_the_Iraq_War, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_in_Afghanistan_(2001%E2%80%932014), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Enduring_Freedom, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northern_Alliance, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2002_loya_jirga, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_on_Terror, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narang_night_raid, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pic_of_ramadi.jpg, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Narang_night_raid.jpg, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tunisian_Revolution, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Winter, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuareg_people, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Spring, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impact_of_the_Arab_Spring, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_revolution_of_2011, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sahrawi_people, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Spring#/media/File:Tunisia_Unrest_-_VOA_-_Tunis_14_Jan_2011_(2).jpg, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Spring#/media/File:Tahrir_Square_on_February11.png, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Nusra_Front, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_Syrian_Army, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refugees_of_the_Syrian_Civil_War, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Assad_family, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modern_history_of_Syria, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Damascus_Spring, http://data.unhcr.org/syrianrefugees/regional.php#_ga=1.11830832.584938222.1490028081, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_heritage_sites_damaged_during_the_Syrian_Civil_War, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Civil_War, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_rights_violations_during_the_Syrian_Civil_War, http://www.unhcr.org/en-us/syria-emergency.html, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_rights_violations_during_the_Syrian_Civil_War#/media/File:Wounded_civilians_arrive_at_hospital_Aleppo.jpg, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Civil_War#/media/File:Saadallah_after_the_explosion.jpg, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Atomic_Energy_Agency, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran_and_Libya_Sanctions_Act, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joint_Plan_of_Action, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran_nuclear_deal_framework, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_program_of_Iran, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_Revolutionary_Guard_Corps, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Israel_relations, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93United_States_relations, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanctions_against_Iran, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negotiations_leading_to_the_Joint_Comprehensive_Plan_of_Action, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joint_Comprehensive_Plan_of_Action, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Iran, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_on_the_Non-Proliferation_of_Nuclear_Weapons, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joint_Comprehensive_Plan_of_Action#/media/File:JCPOA_Signatures.png, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P5%2B1#/media/File:Iran_negotiations_about_Iran%27s_nuclear.jpg. President Saddam Hussein was captured during Operation Red Dawn in December 2003 and executed by a military court three years later. UN also reported that armed forces of both sides of the conflict blocked access of humanitarian convoys, confiscated food, cut off water supplies, and targeted farmers working their fields. Other facilities will be converted to avoid proliferation risks. War crimes by have been committed both sides. In Western media, the term tends to refer to groups that aim to establish a sharia-based Islamic state, often with connotations of political extremism and implications of violent tactics and human rights violations. From 2006, the Taliban made significant gains and showed an increased willingness to commit atrocities against civilians. The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq failed to stabilize the political situation in the Middle East and contributed to ongoing civil conflicts, with counterterrorism experts arguing that they created circumstances beneficial to the escalation of radical Islamism. Initially, the protesters demanded mostly democratic reforms, but by April, the emphasis in demonstration slogans began shifting toward a call to overthrow the Assad regime. Some of the most well-known attacks … Some nations prohibit women from ever traveling alone, while in others women can travel freely but experience a greater risk of sexual harassment or assault than they would in Western countries. The final agreement is based upon (and buttresses) “the rules-based nonproliferation regime created by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and including especially the IAEA safeguards system.”. Several days later in a speech, President Bashar al-Assad blamed “foreign conspirators” pushing “Israeli propaganda” for the protests. This is a significant event because most of the countries in the Middle East are now influenced by these two countries. In the wake of the Arab Spring protests, a considerable amount of attention has been focused on the role of social media and digital technologies in allowing citizens to circumvent state-operated media channels. World News Middle East Politics (117) Middle East, Politics Timeline: Sunday, June 17: Author Search World News Atlas: According to the Washington Post, “most congressional Republicans remained deeply skeptical, some openly scornful, of the prospect of relieving economic sanctions while leaving any Iranian uranium-enrichment capability intact.” Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, Republican of Kentucky, said the deal “appears to fall well short of the goal we all thought was trying to be achieved, which was that Iran would not be a nuclear state.” A New York Times news analysis stated that Republican opposition to the agreement “seems born of genuine distaste for the deal’s details, inherent distrust of President Obama, intense loyalty to Israel and an expansive view of the role that sanctions have played beyond preventing Iran’s nuclear abilities.” The Washington Post identified twelve issues related to the agreement on which the two sides disagreed, including the efficacy of inspections at undeclared sites; the effectiveness of the snapback sanctions; the significance of limits on enrichment; the significance of IAEA side agreements; the effectiveness of inspections of military sites; the consequences of walking away from an agreement; and the effects of lifting sanctions. One group that has not benefited noticeably from the Tunisian turn to democratic reforms is the LGBTQ community. <> This timeline of United States government military operations, based in part on reports by the Congressional Research Service, shows the years and places in which U.S. military units participated in armed conflicts or occupation of foreign territories. A fifth American left Iran in a separate arrangement. In the initial years, there was little fighting but from 2006 the Taliban made significant gains and showed an increased willingness to commit atrocities against civilians. The number of militant Islamic movements calling for “an Islamic state and the end of Western influence” is relatively small. However, the power vacuum following Saddam’s demise and the mismanagement of the occupation led to widespread sectarian violence and insurgency against U.S. and coalition forces. According to a UN report, in 2013 there were nearly three thousand civilian deaths, with 74% blamed on anti-government forces. 3 0 obj Not all of the Sunnis are Arabs. Middle East Timeline: Sunday, June 17: Author Search World News Atlas: World News (13) Africa (996) Latin America (823) North America (1543) Middle East Disasters ... Middle East, 21st Century, Location by Topic. Learn more on HISTORY.com. In… Dynamic MapReport. At the same time, Middle Eastern history includes significant episodes of conflict between rulers and proponents of change. Unable to find work and selling fruit at a roadside stand, Bouazizi had his wares confiscated by a municipal inspector in December 2010. President Barack Obama formally withdrew all combat troops from Iraq by December 2011, but Iraqi insurgency surged in the aftermath of the U.S. withdrawal. Radical movements such as Taliban and al-Qaeda embrace militant Islamic ideology. By September 2011, Syrian rebels were engaged in an active insurgency campaign in many parts of Syria. Aside from Israel, all of the above countries maintain the death penalty for serious crimes although no executions have been carried out in a long time. 21st Century Issues What factors (forces) drive independence movements? As the conflict has expanded across Syria, many cities have been engulfed in a wave of crime as fighting caused the disintegration of much of the civilian state and many police stations stopped functioning. To monitor and verify Iran’s compliance with the agreement, the IAEA will have regular access to all Iranian nuclear facilities. Some estimates suggest that during 2010 there were as many as 9,700 protests throughout the country. Furthermore, the end of the Cold War and Soviet occupation of Afghanistan has eliminated the common atheist Communist enemy uniting some religious Muslims and the capitalist west. It was manifested in greater religious piety and a growing adoption of Islamic culture. In the 19th century, European encroachment on the Muslim world came with the retreat of the Ottoman Empire, the French conquest of Algeria (1830), the disappearance of the Moghul Empire in India (1857), and the Russian incursions into the Caucasus and Central Asia. A number of sources have emphasized that as of at least late 2015/early 2016, the Syrian government was dependent on a mix of volunteers and militias rather than the Syrian Armed Forces. Security forces retaliated by opening fire on the protesters. In 1979, the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, was seized by an armed fundamentalist group and held for over a week. endobj ; online survey 1. Final Paper due Thu—questions? Lebanon, Turkey, Kuwait, Morocco, and Jordan are all categorized as “partly free.” All of these countries are to some extent representative democracies. A major focus of the negotiations was limitations on Iran’s key nuclear facilities. Nuclear experts and watchdogs agreed that the agreement was a positive development. The endurance of authoritarian regimes in the Middle East is notable in comparison to the rest of the world. It was reached in 2015 after years of negotiations between Iran, the P5+1, and the European Union. This interpretation is, however, undermined by the subsequent political turmoil that emerged, particularly in Egypt. The past two and a half centuries have seen the map of the Middle East change radically. This product has everything you need to help you create a running timeline of events in your social studies units. The Bush administration based its rationale for the war principally on the assertion that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction, but no substantial evidence for this claim was found. Scholars Quinn Mecham and Tarek Osman have identified some trends in political Islam resulting from the Arab Spring. Despite some democratic gestures (e.g., secular constitution and elections), international organizations currently consider Egypt to be an authoritarian regime. The number of legalized political parties in Tunisia has grown considerably since the revolution. As of 2017, Tunisia is considered the only full democracy in the Arab World, despite many challenges the country still faces. A major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world was “the people want to bring down the regime.”. The Islamist political program is generally accomplished by reshaping the governments of existing Muslim nation-states. Islamism is commonly used interchangeably with the terms political Islam or Islamic fundamentalism. Taliban are still very much alive and fighting a vigorous insurgency with suicide bombings and armed attacks launched against NATO and Afghan government targets. Counterterrorism expert Rohan Gunaratna frequently referred to the invasion of Iraq as a “fatal mistake.”, London’s International Institute for Strategic Studies concluded in 2004 that the occupation of Iraq had become “a potent global recruitment pretext” for radical Muslim fighters and that the invasion “galvanized” al-Qaeda and “perversely inspired insurgent violence.” The U.S. National Intelligence Council concluded in a 2005 report that the war in Iraq had become a breeding ground for a new generation of terrorists. This coincided with the most intense drought ever recorded in Syria, which lasted from 2007 to 2010 and resulted in widespread crop failure, an increase in food prices, and a mass migration of farming families to urban centers. Instead of prompting a backlash, Saudi Arabia, already very conservative, responded by shoring up its fundamentalist credentials with even more Islamic restrictions. Television coverage by channels like Al Jazeera and BBC News provided worldwide exposure and prevented mass violence by the Egyptian government in Tahrir Square. They cite the lack of voluntary associations as a reason for the persistence of authoritarianism in the region. The trafficking of accumulated stocks continued in 2000 and 2001. In February 2017, Amnesty International published a report which accused the Syrian government of murdering an estimated 13,000 persons, mostly civilians, at the Saydnaya military prison. Democracy and Authoritarianism in the Middle East. Kuwait is a constitutional emirate with a semi-democratic political system. Nearly all the Middle Eastern states, including those categorized as democratic, violate some human rights according to international legal standards. The diseases have primarily affected children and include measles, typhoid, hepatitis, dysentery, tuberculosis, diphtheria, whooping cough, and the disfiguring skin disease leishmaniasis. Some of the gravest violations include the application of capital punishment and lack of legal protection for women and children. A printable version of this timeline is available for download at the bottom of this page. In the late 20th century an Islamic revival or Islamic awakening developed in the Muslim world,  manifested in greater religious piety and growing adoption of Islamic culture. The Islamic State, formerly known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, is a Salafi jihadist extremist militant group led by and mainly composed of Sunni Arabs from Syria and Iraq. Islamist groups like Hezbollah and Hamas participate in the democratic and political process as well as in armed attacks. The child malnutrition rate rose to 28%. The influence of social media on political activism during the Arab Spring has been much debated. Following the 1979 Revolution, most of the international nuclear cooperation with Iran was cut off. The Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIGRC) called the Taliban’s terrorism against the Afghan civilian population a war crime. The Taliban leader Mullah Omar then banned opium cultivation and production dropped. By the end of February 2012, rulers had been forced from power in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen. Most Iraqis had no access to safe drinking water. The scene of the October 2012 Aleppo bombings, for which al-Nusra Front claimed responsibility. There are diverse theories on why the Middle East remains essentially undemocratic. By 2005, Afghanistan was producing 90% of the world’s opium, most of which was processed into heroin and sold in Europe and Russia. The nuclear program of Iran has included several research sites, two uranium mines, a research reactor, and uranium processing facilities that include three known uranium enrichment plants. The two were later joined by other forces. The 21st Century. Interaction between the political parties keeps the balance between state and religion. ISIS has also claimed responsibility for hundreds of terrorist attacks in the Middle East and around the world. Israel, Lebanon, Turkey, and Kuwait were determined “partly free” while all the other countries in the region received the “not free” status. While such regimes have fallen throughout Eastern Europe or sub-Saharan Africa, for example, they have persisted in the Middle East. The rise of radical Islamism is a result of many complex factors, including Western colonialism in Muslim-dominated regions, state-sponsored aggressive popularization of ultra-orthodox interpretations of Islam, Western and pro-Western Muslim support for Islamist groups during the Cold War, and victories of Islamist groups over pro-Western politicians and factions in the Middle East. After several rounds of negotiations, in November 2013, the Joint Plan of Action (JPA), an interim agreement on the Iranian nuclear program, was signed between Iran and the P5+1 countries in Geneva, Switzerland. The Syrian Civil War is an ongoing armed conflict that grew out of discontent with the authoritarian government of President Bashar al-Assad and escalated into a brutal war fought by a complex network of factions, including the Syrian government and its allies, many fractured anti-government rebel groups, and radical Islamist organizations that aim to establish an Islamic state. Opportunities and challenges for the persistence of authoritarianism in the democratic and five others as partial,. East change radically rapidly in Damascus and to a single facility of rapid change such regimes have throughout! Half the population of Iraqi doctors left the country, now named the Islamic resurgence was by! 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