My talk was this: “What do you think my Fronto is now doing?” Then she: “And what do you think my Gratia is doing?” Then I: “And what do you think our little sparrow, the wee Gratia, is doing?” Whilst we were chattering in this way and disputing which of us loved the one or other of you two the better, the gong sounded, an intimation that my father had gone to his bath. First, to be concerned with self in the Hellenistic and Roman periods is not exclusively a preparation for political life. For John Cassian, being a money changer and looking at your thoughts means something very different: It means you must try to decipher it, at the root of the movement which brings you the representations, there is or is not concupiscence or desire - if your innocent thought has evil origins; if you have something underlying which is the great seducer, which is perhaps hidden, the money of your thought. Then he prostrates himself and kisses the brethren’s knees (On Repentance 9 - 12). Since 1998, Foucault.info has been providing free access to a large selection of texts. He did not wish to be dominated by youth, but now he wants to dominate others. Problem of the relation between being occupied with oneself and political activity. In the Socratic dialogues, in Xenophon, Hippocrates, and in the Neoplatonist tradition from Albinus on, one had to be concerned with oneself. Michel Foucault - Michel Foucault - Foucault’s ideas: What types of human beings are there? Taking care of oneself became linked to a constant writing activity. You keep silent at the lecture. Alcibiades is about to begin his public and political life. Between these two extremes - Socrates and Gregory of Nyssa - taking care of oneself constituted not only a principle but also a constant practice. Second, the concern with oneself is not just obligatory for young people concerned with their education; it is a way of living for everybody throughout their lives. That is not a modern trait born of the Reformation or of romanticism; it is one of the most ancient Western traditions. By telling himself not only his thoughts but also the smallest movements of consciousness, his intentions, the monk stands in a hermeneutic relation not only to the master but to himself. These ostentatious gestures have the function of showing the truth of the state of being the sinner. I slept somewhat late owing to my slight cold, which seems now to have subsided. Often the discussion gravitates around and is phrased in terms of the Delphic principle, “Know yourself”. For Seneca it isn’t a question of discovering truth in the subject but of remembering truth, recovering a truth which has been forgotten. In exomologesis, the penitent superimposes truth about self by violent rupture and dissociation. Auto means “the same”, but it also conveys the notion of identity. What must one know about oneself in order to be willing to renounce anything? Max Weber posed the question: If one wants to behave rationally and regulate one’s action according to true principles, what part of one’s self should one renounce? Since the sixteenth century, criticism of established morality has been undertaken in the name of the importance of recognizing and knowing the self. The second is what was called in the spiritual literature exagoresis. At least one example of self-examination, proposed by John Chrysostom, was exactly the same form and the same administrative character as that described by Seneca in De Ira. This is the new technology of the self. In my discussion of Plato’s Alcibiades, I have isolated three major themes: first, the relation between care for oneself and care for the political life; second, the relation between taking care of the self and defective education; and third, the relation between taking care of oneself and knowing oneself. Dream interpretation was important because in antiquity the meaning of a dream was an announcement of a future event. If the problems are the same, the solutions and themes are quite different and, in some cases, the opposite of the Platonic meanings. This relation is modelled on the renunciation of one’s own will and of one’s own self. In that talk, Foucault notes that “the hermeneutics of the self has been confused with theologies of … Exposé is the heart of exomologesis. For Socrates, occupying oneself if the duty of a young man, but later in the Hellenistic period it is seen as a permanent duty of one’s whole life. Fourth, the subject is not the operating ground for the process of deciphering but is the point where rules of conduct come together in memory. The first philosophical elaboration of the concern with taking care of oneself that I wish to consider is found in Plato’s Alcibiades I. This theme of self-renunciation is very important. It was founded on the capacity of the master to lead the disciple to a happy and autonomous life through good advice. Seneca seems to use juridical language, and it seems that the self is both the judge and the accused. It is used in reference to the activity of a farmer tending his fields, his cattle, and his house, or to the job of the king in taking care of his city and citizens, or to the worship of ancestors or gods, or as a medical term to signify the fact of caring. It had several characteristics. Theoretically, the culture is soul-orientated, but all the concerns of the body take on a huge importance. of Massachusets Press, 1988. It has as its final aim not preparation for another reality but access to the reality of this world. concept of “technologies of the self” by Foucault (1988) as a heuristic device in order to situate Web 2.0 use, first, in a long history of culturally evolved forms of self-constitution and, second, in a complex matrix of relationships with other types of technologies, namely, those of … Finally, in the last lines, there is an allusion to the examination of conscience at the end of the day. I encountered certain difficulties in this study because these practices are not well known. Apologetics Wiki is a FANDOM Lifestyle Community. Two facts may be objected: first, that confession played an important part in penal and religious institutions for all offenses, not only in sex. So write the editors of the posthumously published 1988 essay collection Technologies of the Self, titled after a lecture Foucault delivered at the University of Vermont in 1982. One rare, short, but not unimportant analysis occurs in The Order of Things. Later, Christian confession will look for bad intentions. Writing was also important in the culture of taking care of oneself. In Christian confession, the penitent is obliged to memorize laws but does so in order to discover his sins. In exagoresis, on the other hand, you show that, in permanently obeying the master, you are renouncing your will and yourself. The difference between good and evil thoughts is that evil thoughts can’t be expressed without difficulty, for evil is hidden and un-stated. It also important to note that this self-examination is rare in Christian literature. Now I want to consider the third Stoic technique, askesis, not a disclosure of the secret self but a remembering. At the beginning of this treatise, Plutarch says that, following schooling, we have to learn to listen to logos throughout our adult life. 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